Back muscles-know everything about back muscles

The muscles of the back are arranged into 3 categories based on their location: superficial
back muscles, intermediate back muscles, and intrinsic back muscles. Intrinsic muscles are
named as such because their formation development begins in the back, opposed to the
superficial and intermediate back muscles which develop elsewhere and are therefore
classed as extrinsic muscles.

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The superficial back muscles are the muscles found just under the skin. Within this group of
back muscles you will find the latissimus dorsi, the trapezius, levator scapulae and the
rhomboids.


These muscles are able to move the upper limb as they originate at the vertebral column
and insert onto either the clavicle, scapula or humerus.


While the superficial muscles of the back allow movements at the shoulder, the intermediate
muscles of the back work to elevate and depress the rib cage. There are two major muscles
within this category – the serratus posterior superior and the serratus posterior inferior.


The intrinsic muscles of the back can be further subdivided into their own superficial,
intermediate and deep layers. These muscles collectively work to help movements of the
vertebral column and to also control posture.


Learn more and more about the muscles of the back– including the superficial, intermediate
and intrinsic back muscles.

the superficial back muscles


The back muscles can be divided into three groups – surface, medial, and deep:

  • Superficial – accompanied by shoulder movements.
  • Middle – corresponding to the movement of the thoracic cage.
  • Deep – associated with the movement of the vertebral column.


Deep muscles grow embryologically at the back and are therefore described as skeletal
muscles. The upper and middle muscles do not grow on their backs, and they are divided
into muscles that pull out the body.


This article is about the discovery of the most back muscles – attachments, placement of
functions and their functions.


The posterior tendons are located beneath the skin and the upper fascia. They come from
the vertebral column and attach to the shoulder blades – the clavicle, scapula, and humerus.
Thus, all of these muscles are associated with the movement of the upper limb.


The tissues in this group are the trapezius, latissimus dorsi, levator scapulae, and rhomboids.
The trapezius and latissimus dorsi are most prominent, while the trapezius covers the
rhomboids and levator scapulae.

Trapezius


The trapezius is a broad, flexible, triangular muscle. The tissues on each side form the
trapezoid structure. It is far superior to all the back muscles.


Attachments:

From skull, ligament nuchae, and C7-T12 circulating processes. The fibers
attach to the clavicle throat, the acromion, and the scapula spine.


Actions:

The upper straps of the trapezius lift the scapula and rotate during the abduction of
the arm. The middle strands return the scarf and the lower strands pull down the scapula.

Laticimus Dorsey


The latissimus dorsi develops from the lower part of the back, where it covers a wide area.


Links:

Has a broad appearance – arising from the spinal processes of T6-T12, iliac crest,
thoracolumbar fascia, and lower three ribs. The fibers connect to one of the ligaments, which
connects to the intertubular sulcus of the humerus.


Innervation:

Thoracodorsal nerve.


Actions:

The upper limb expands, joins and spins clinically.

Lavator scapula


The levator scapula is a small strap-like muscle. It starts at the neck and descends to connect
with the scapula.


Links:

C1-C4 is formed from the cross-sectional processes of the vertebrae and joins the
medial border of the scapula.


Discovery:

The dorsal scapular nerve.


Actions:

Raises the scapula.


Rhomboids:


There are two rhomboid muscles – large and small. The Rhomboid minor is located above
than the Minor Major.


Rhomboid Major


Links: T2-T5 are formed from the spinal processes of vertebrae. The scapula connects to the
medial border of the scapula, between the vertebrae and the inferior angle.


Discovery:

Dorsal scapular nerve.


Actions:

Retracts and rotates the scapula.


Rhomboid Minor


Links: C7-D1 is formed from the spiral processes of vertebrae. At the level of the spine of the
scapula, it joins the medial border of the scapula.


Discovery:

The dorsal scapular nerve.


Actions:

Retracts and rotates the scapula.


The intermediate back muscles


The muscles of the back can be divided into three groups – superficial, medial, and internal:

  1. Superficial – associated with shoulder movements.
  2. Intermediate – it’s mainly associated with movements of the thoracic cage.
  3. Deep – associated with the movements of the vertebral column.


The deep muscles are formed in the fetus at the back, thus they are described as internal
muscles. The superficial and middle muscles do not form in the back, and they are classified
as external muscles.


This article is about the anatomy of the middle spinal muscles – their connections, findings
and functions.


The intermediate group has two muscles – the posterior superior and the posterior inferior
of the cerebellum. These muscles work from the spine to the ribs and help lift and relax the
ribs. They are thought to have a mild respiratory function.


Serratus Posterior Superior


Serratus Posterior Superior is a slender, rectangular muscle. It is deep into the rhomboid
muscles in the upper back.


Links:

The tendon develops from the lower part of the ligament, and the cervical and
thoracic vertebrae (usually C7 – D3). The fibers go in an inferolateral direction, joining the 2-5
ribs.


Discovery:

Intercostal nerves.


Actions:

Raises the ribs 2-5.


Serratus posterior inferior


The posterior inferiority of the cerebellum is broad and strong. It is located at the base of
the latissimus dorsi.
Joints: Formed from the thoracic and lumbar vertebrae (usually T11 – L3). The fibers go in a
superlateral direction, joining the ribs 9-12.


Discovery:

Intercostal nerves.


Actions:

Ribs 9-12.


The intrinsic back muscle


The muscles of the back can be divided into three groups – superficial, medial, and internal:

  1. Superficial – associated with shoulder movements.
  2. Intermediate – associated with the movements of the thoracic cage.
  3. Deep – associated with the movements of the spinal column.


The deep muscles are formed in the fetus at the back, thus they are described as internal
muscles. The superficial and medial muscles do not form in the back, and they are classified
as external muscles.


This article is about the anatomy of deep (intrinsic) back muscles – their connections,
findings and functions.


The deep muscles of the back are well developed, and they extend from the sacrum to the
base of the skull. They are related to the movements of the spinal column and the control of
posture.


Muscles are covered by deep fascia, which plays an important role in their structure.


Anatomically, the deep posterior muscles can be divided into three layers; Superficial,
intermediate, and deep. Now let’s look at each layer in more detail.


Superficial


There are two muscles in this group -the splenic capillaries and the splenic cervix. They are both associated with the head and neck movements.


They are located in the posterior lateral aspect of the neck, covering the deep neck muscles.


Splenius capitis

Links:

The tendon develops from the lower aspect of the nucleus, and the spinal processes of
the C7 – D3/4 vertebrae. The fibers ascend, joining the mastoid process and the occipital
bone of the skull.


Discovery:

posterior ramie of spinal nerves C3 and C4.


Actions:

Rotate head to the same side.

Splenius cervicis


Links:

T3-T6 are formed from the spinal processes of the vertebrae. The fibers ascend and
join the cross-sectional processes of C1-3 / 4.


Discovery:

posterior rami of lower cervical spinal nerves.


Actions:

Rotate the head to one side.


Note: The two splenic muscles can work together to stretch the head and neck.


Intermediate


There are three intermediate endothelial muscles – the iliocostalis, the longissimus, and the
spinalis. These muscles together form a column, called the stiff spine.


The stiff vertebrae are located behind the vertebral column between the vertebral spinal
processes and the price angle of the ribs.


All three muscles can be separated by their superior joints (such as lamborum, thoracic,
cervices, and captis). They all have a common tendon appearance, which arises from:

  • Lumbar and lower thoracic vertebrae.
  • Sacrum.
  • The posterior aspect of the iliac crest.
  • Sacroiliac and supraspinatus ligaments.


Ilicostails


Iliocostalis muscle stiffness is located laterally within the spine. It is related to the ribs and
can be divided into three parts as lamborum, thoracic and cervicis.


Links:

arises from the common tendon origin, and is associated with the cost angle of the
ribs and cervical cross-sectional processes.


Discovery:

posterior ramie of spinal nerves.


Actions:

Actes unilaterally to keep the spine column sliding laterally. Both sides act to extend
the spinal column and head.


Longissimus


The longissimus muscle is located between the iliocostalis and the spinalis. It is the largest of
the three columns. Thoracic, cervical and capillary can be divided into three parts.


Links:

arises from the common tendon origin and connects to the lower ribs, the transverse
processes of C2 – D12 and the mastoid process of the skull.


Discovery:

posterior ramie of spinal nerves.


Actions:

Actes unilaterally to keep the spine column sliding laterally. Both sides act to extend
the spinal column and head.


Spinalis


Spinal muscle stiffness is clinically located within the spine. It is the smallest of the three
muscle columns. It can be divided into thoracic, cervical and capillary (although some
individuals do not have a cervical area).


Links:

arises from the common tendon origin and connects with the spinal processes of C2,
D1-D8 and the occipital bone of the skull.


Discovery:

posterior ramie of spinal nerves.


Actions:

Actes unilaterally to keep the spine column sliding laterally. Both sides act to extend
the spinal column and head.


Deep


The deep internal muscles are located beneath the stiff spine, and they are collectively called
transverse spinals. They are a group of short muscles that are associated with the transverse
and spinal processes of the spinal column.


There are three main muscles in this group – the semispinalis, the multifitus and the rotator
cuff.


semispinalis


Semispinalis is the most superficial of the deep internal muscles. Like the medial muscles, it
can be divided into thoracic, cervical, and capillaries by its superior joints.


Links:

Formed from the cross-processes of C4-D10. The fibers ascend 4–6 vertebral
segments, the spiral processes of C2 – D4 and connect with the occipital bone of the skull.


Discovery:

posterior ramie of spinal nerves.


Actions:

The head and spine extend and rotate counterclockwise.


Maltihpitas


Multifidus is located beneath the semispinalis muscle. It is specially developed in the pelvic
area.


Links:

Has a broad appearance – arises from the chakra, posterior iliac spine, general
ligament appearance of the stiff vertebrae, mammary processes of the lumbar spine,
transverse processes of D1-D3, and limbic processes of C4-C7. The fibers climb the 2-4
vertebral segments and connect the spinal processes of the vertebrae.


Discovery:

posterior ramie of spinal nerves.


Actions:

Stabilizes the spine column.


Rotators


Rotators are very important in the thoracic region


Links:

The spine is formed from cross processes. The fibers ascend and immediately connect
with the lamina and spinal processes of the superior vertebrae.


Discovery:

posterior ramie of spinal nerves.


Actions:

Stabilizes the spinal column and has a proprioceptive activity.


Small deep internal muscles:


Interspinal: Spreads between adjacent spiral processes. Acts to stabilize the spine column.
Intranasal – spread between adjacent cross processes. Acts to stabilize the spine column.
Levador’s costarum – formed from the transverse processes of C7-D11, immediately joining
the rib cage. Acts to lift the ribs.

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